Jumat, 16 Maret 2012

Article Simple Present & Simple Past


Global Warming Threatens to kill off a Million Species

The changing climate over the next 50 years is expected to drive a quarter of land animals and plants into extinction (S.Past tense), according to the first comprehensive study into the effect of higher temperatures on the natural world. The scale of the disaster facing the planet shocked those involved in the research (S.Past tense). They estimate that more than 1 million species will be lost by 2050. Earth is already showing many signs of worldwide climate change ( S.Present tense ) .

The results are described as " terrifying " by Chris Thomas, professor of conservation biology at Leeds University (S.Past tense) ,who is lead author of the research from four continents published last week in the magazine Nature (S.Past tense) . Much of that loss – more than one in 10 of all plants and animals is already irreversible because of the extra global warming gases already discharged into the atmosphere ( S.Present tense ). But the scientists say that action to curb greenhouse gases now could save many more ( S.Present tense ) .

In South Africa, major conservation areas such as Kruger National Park risked losing up to 60% of the species under their protection ( S.Present tense ), while of 300 South African plant species studied, more than one third were expected to die out (S.Past tense), including the
national flower, the King Protea.

Studies in Mexico's Chihuahuan desert confirmed that on flatter land extinction was more likely because a small change in climate would require migrations over vast distances for survival (S.Past tense) . One third of 1,870 species examined would be in trouble .

The research says that, if mankind continues to burn oil, coal and gas at the current rate ( S.Present tense ) , up to one third of all life forms will be doomed by 2050.
The fact about Global Warming :
·        Early plants started to develop more than 2 billion years ago, probably about 2,700,000,000 (S.Past tense)
·        The global fleet of motor vehicles is estimated at 850,000,000 (2010) (S.Past tense)
·        Measurements of the concentration of carbon dioxide since 1959 (316 ppm) have revealed an increase to 392 ppm in 2011, or at an average 1.46 ppm per year (S.Past tense)
·        The year 1998 was the warmest of record. The year 2002 was the second warmest (to that date). The year 2003 was the third warmest (to that date). The year 2004 was the fourth warmest (to that date). The year 2005 equaled 1998 as the warmest of record. The year 2007 equaled 1998 as the second warmest of record. The ten warmest years have occurred in the twelve-year period 1997-2008 (S.Past tense)
·        About 75% of the annual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide is due to the burning of fossil fuels.
·        The remaining 25% is attributed to anthropogenic changes in land use, which have the effect of reducing the net uptake of carbon dioxide.
·         Anthropogenic changes in land use occur when forests are converted to rangelands, rangelands to agriculture, and agriculture to urban areas.
·         Other patterns of land degradation--deforestation, overgrazing, overcultivation, urban sprawl, desertification, and salinization--reduce the net uptake of carbon dioxide, indirectly contributing, however slightly, to global warming.

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A butterfly is a mainly day-flying insect of the order Lepidoptera, which includes the butterflies and moths ( S.Present tense ). Like other holometabolous insects, the butterfly's life cycle consists of four parts: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Most species are diurnal. Butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. Butterflies comprise the true butterflies (superfamily Papilionoidea) ( S.Present tense ). the skippers (superfamily Hesperioidea) and the moth-butterflies (superfamily Hedyloidea). All the many other families within the Lepidoptera are referred to as moths. The earliest known butterfly fossils date to the mid Eocene epoch, between 40–50 million years ago .
Usualy Butterfly food nectar, a sugary fluid secreted by the flowers ( S.Present tense ). To suck this fluid, the butterfly has the sucking type of mouthparts. As the Butterfly moves from one flower to another, it spreads pollen and serves fertilization in plants.
Is not butter and cheese if a predator wants to devour a butterfly. Contrary to its name, a butterfly is the most unpleasant stuff to eat. Usually butterflies have bright coloration that serves as a warning to predators ( S.Present tense ).  If in spite of the warning, the predator flings its tongue on the butterfly, the poison stored in the body of the butterfly will cause severe vomitting. The predator is compelled to spit out its prey and move away.
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