Kamis, 15 Maret 2012

Kalimat Simple Present & Simple Past Tense

Simple Present Tense
Dalam bahasa Inggris Present Tense atau Simple Present Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan peristiwa atau kejadian, kegiatan, aktivitas dan sebagainya yang terjadi saat ini. Present Tense juga digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu Fakta, atau sesuatu yang tejadi berulang-ulang dimasa kini.
Pola Kalimat
(+) S + V-1 (s/es) + O + keterangan waktu.
(-) S + do/does + not + V-1 + O + keterangan waktu.
(?) Do/does + S + V-1 + O + keterangan waktu?

Contoh :
(+) You study English at MEC every day.
(-) You don't study English at MEC every day.
(?) Do you study English at MEC every day?

Adverb of frequency
-          always : selalu Usually : biasanya
-          generally : umumnya
-          ever : pernah
-          Sometimes : kadang-kadang
-          occasionally : kadarag-kaclang
-          never : tidak pernah
-          Seldom : jarang
Adverb of quantity
-          once … : sekali ...
-          once a day : sekali dalam sehari
-          once a week : sekali dalam seminggu
-          twice … : dua kali ...
-          three times … : tiga kali dalam ...
-          every … : setiap ...
Example     :
1. I buy the newspaper
2. I drink Tea
3. She watches television
4. I play football everyday
5. You study English every day
6. I leave for office at 6 every morning
7. Father always drinks coffe in the afternoon.
8. The world is round
9. He studies English
10. I work five days a week

 Global Warming Threatens to kill off a Million Species

The changing climate over the next 50 years is expected to drive a quarter of land animals and plants into extinction, according to the first comprehensive study into the effect of higher temperatures on the natural world. The scale of the disaster facing the planet shocked those involved in the research. They estimate that more than 1 million species will be lost by 2050.

The results are described as "terrifying" by Chris Thomas, professor of conservation biology at Leeds University, who is lead author of the research from four continents published last week in the magazine Nature. Much of that loss – more than one in 10 of all plants and animals is already irreversible because of the extra global warming gases already discharged into the atmosphere. But the scientists say that action to curb greenhouse gases now could save many more.

In South Africa, major conservation areas such as Kruger National Park risked losing up to 60% of the species under their protection, while of 300 South African plant species studied, more than one third were expected to die out, including the
national flower, the King Protea.

Studies in Mexico's Chihuahuan desert confirmed that on flatter land extinction was more likely because a small change in climate would require migrations over vast distances for survival. One third of 1,870 species examined would be in trouble.

The research says that, if mankind continues to burn oil, coal and gas at the current rate, up to one third of all life forms will be doomed by 2050.
Simple Past Tense
Simple past Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang telah terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lalu. kejadian bisa pendek atau panjang. Berarti juga bisa menjadi beberapa kejadian terjadi satu demi persatu. Secara umum, Ada dua fakta penting yang perlu diingat dalam tenses bahasa inggris ini :
1. Peristiwa di masa lalu yang telah selesai (misalnya : I went to school)
2. Situasi di masa lalu (they lived a normal life until they won a lottery)
3. Serangkaian tindakan di masa lalu
Rumus :
Positif (+)
- Subject + to be (was/were) + complement
- Subject + verb 2 + object
Negatif (-)
- Subject + to be (was/were) + not + complement
- Subject + did not + verb 1 + object
Tanya (?)
- Did + subject + verb 1 + object ?
Keterangan waktu (adverb of time) yang umum digunakan dalam simple past tense :
Yesterday (kemarin, the other day (lain hari), just now (sekarang), the day before yesterday (sehari sebelum kemarin), etc
Example   :
1. I played a Playstation this morning.
2. I was a teacher
3. I bought a Pencil yesterday.
4. I was sick this morning
5. She washed yesterday
6. I saw that movie last week.
7. I bought flowers yesterday
8. I wrote a letter for my pen pal last week
9. My Father bought this house last year
10.He played football this afternoon

Keterangan waktu (adverb of time) yang umum digunakan dalam simple past tense :
Yesterday (kemarin, the other day (lain hari), just now (sekarang), the day before yesterday (sehari sebelum kemarin), etc